Mary Queen of ScotsThe Reformation in Scotland came to its head in the 1560s, and was modeled on John Calvin's Geneva . His pupil John Knox is famous for head-to-head debates with Mary, Queen of Scots, the Catholic Queen who returned from France and tried to remain loyal to the Roman system.

By the end of the 16th century, the Protestant Church of Scotland had developed into a Presbyterian Church, with a system of courts (today General Assembly, presbytery and kirk session), and a strong tradition of preaching and Scriptural emphasis.