That process of re-union gave the Church of Scotland an opportunity to resolve once and for all how it wanted to govern itself and how it wanted to relate to the state. Little remains of the Church's previous establishment, but she retains a strong sense of a national responsibility to bring Christ's Gospel to the whole of Scotland . She is free, therefore, from civil interference in spiritual matters. In a millennium and a half, the Church has been at different times a tiny, radical outside force, a revolutionary movement, a strand of government and a partner in civil society. It has been supportive and critical, protective and destructive, peacemaker and warrior.

Today the Church of Scotland lives in the creative tension of serving a nation, offering the ordinances of religion and also providing a prophetic Gospel voice through parish ministry and national engagement of many kinds.